Monday, February 18, 2008

Muhammad - mirror from Wikipedia

Muhammad's name, engraved in gold, adorns the walls of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Originally a Christian church, it was converted into a mosque after the Fall of Constantinople.

Topkapi Palace gate with Shahadah and his seal. The Muslim Profession of faith, the Shahadah, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad — "There is no god (ʾilāh)[165] but God(Allāh), and Muhammad is His Messenger."

Wazir Khan Mosque (16th century) Fresco painting with floral designs surrounding the words "Allah" and "Muhammad" in blue.

The Al-Masjid al-Nabawi is Islam's second most sacred site; the Green dome in the background stands above Muhammad's tomb

The Kaaba in Mecca held a major economic and religious role for the area, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for Salat

The Al-Aqsa Mosque congregation building, the site from which Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have ascended to heaven.

Persian miniature painting, from 1550 CE, depicting Muhammad ascending on the Burak into the Heavens.

15th century illustration in a copy of a manuscript by Al-Bīrūnī, depicting Muhammad preaching the Qur'ān in Mecca.[55]

The mountain of Hira where, according to Muslim tradition, Muhammad received his first revelation.

The earliest surviving depiction of Muhammad from Rashid al-Din's Jami al-Tawarikh, approximately 1315, illustrating the episode of the Black Stone.[47]

11th-century Persian Qur'an folio page in kufic scriptPart of a series on Islam

The name "Muhammad" in traditional Thuluth calligraphy by the hand of Hattat Aziz Efendi.[1]

Part of a series on theIslamic prophet Muhammad
Nakkaş Osman [c. 1595]. Prophet Muhammad at the Ka'ba, The Life of the Prophet Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul (Inv. 1222/123b). Muhammad's face is veiled, a practice followed in Islamic art since the 16th century.[24]

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Family tree · In Mecca · In Medina · Conquest of Mecca · The Farewell Sermon · Succession


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Abu l-Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh al-Hashimi al-Qurashi (Arabic: محمد‎‎[2] Muḥammad; (Mohammed, Muhammed, Mahomet)[3][4][5] (c. 570 Mecca – June 8, 632 Medina),[6] was the founder of Islam and is regarded by Muslims as the last messenger and prophet of God (Arabic: الله Allah), and is also regarded as a prophet by the Druze and as a Manifestation of God by the Bahá'í Faith.[7] Muslims do not believe that he was the creator of a new religion, but the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and others. They see him as the last and the greatest in a series of prophets of Islam.[8][9][10] He is also seen as a diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, general and reformer.[11]

Sources on Muhammad’s life concur that he was born ca. 570 CE in the city of Mecca in Arabia.[12] He was orphaned at a young age and was brought up by his uncle, later worked mostly as a merchant, and was married by age 26. At some point, discontented with life in Mecca, he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. According to Islamic tradition, it was here at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām)[13] is the only way (dīn),[14] acceptable to God, and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus, and other prophets.[15][16][10]

Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was largely met with hostility from the tribes of Mecca; he was treated harshly and so were his followers. To escape persecution, Muhammad and his followers migrated to Yathrib (Medina)[17] in the year 622. This historic event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad managed to unite the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to ten thousand, conquered Mecca. In 632, on returning to Medina from his 'Farewell pilgrimage', Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of Arabia had converted to Islam.

The revelations (or Ayats, lit. Signs of God), which Muhammad reported receiving till his death, form the verses of the Qur'an,[18] regarded by Muslims as the “word of God”, around which the religion is based. Besides the Qur'an, Muhammad’s life (sira) and traditions (sunnah) are also upheld by Muslims.

Figurative depictions of Muhammad were a significant part of late medieval Islamic art; however, such depictions were generally limited to secular contexts and to the elite classes who could afford fine art.[19] The taboo on depictions of Muhammad was less stringent during the Ottoman Empire, although his face was often left blank.[20]

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 Sources for Muhammad's life
3 Biography
3.1 Before Medina
3.1.1 Genealogy
3.1.2 Childhood
3.1.3 Middle years
3.1.4 Beginnings of the Qur'an
3.1.5 Early years in Mecca
3.1.6 Opposition in Mecca
3.1.7 Last years in Mecca
3.1.8 Isra and Mi'raj
3.2 Muhammad in Medina
3.2.1 Hijra to Medina
3.2.2 Beginnings of armed conflict
3.2.3 Conflict with Mecca
3.2.4 The rousing of the nomads
3.2.5 Siege of Medina
3.2.6 Truce of Hudaybiyya
3.3 Conquest of Mecca
3.3.1 Conquest of Arabia
3.3.2 Death
3.4 Marriages and children
3.5 Companions
4 Muhammad the reformer
5 Miracles in the Muslim biographies
6 Traditional views of Muhammad
6.1 Seal of the prophets
6.2 Depictions of Muhammad
6.3 Muslim veneration of Muhammad
6.4 Christian and Western views of Muhammad
6.4.1 Popular image of Muhammad in medieval times
6.4.2 Later medieval representations
6.4.3 Early modern times
6.4.4 Modern times
6.5 Other religious traditions in regard to Muhammad
7 See also
8 Notes
9 References
9.1 Encyclopedias
10 Further reading
11 External Links

The name Muhammad literally means "Praiseworthy".[21][22] Within Islam, Muhammad is known as Nabi (Prophet) and Rasul (Messenger). Although the Qur'an sometimes declines to make a distinction among prophets, in Surah 33:40 it singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets".[23] The Qur'an also refers to Muhammad as "Ahmad" (Surah 61:6) (Arabic :أحمد), Arabic for "more praiseworthy".

Sources for Muhammad's life
Main articles: Historiography of early Islam and Historicity of Muhammad


Allah · Oneness of God
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Islam Portal v • d • e

From a scholarly point of view, the most credible source providing information on events in Muhammad's life is the Qur'an.[25][26] The Qur'an has some, though very few, casual allusions to Muhammad's life.[26] The Qur'an, however, responds "constantly and often candidly to Muhammad's changing historical circumstances and contains a wealth of hidden data that are relevant to the task of the quest for the historical Muhammad."[27] All or most of the Qur'an was apparently written down by Muhammad's followers while he was alive, but it was, then as now, primarily an orally related document, and the written compilation of the whole Qur'an in its definite form was completed early after the death of Muhammad.[28] The Qur'an in its actual form is generally considered by academic scholars to record the words spoken by Muhammad because the search for variants in Western academia has not yielded any differences of great significance.[29]

Next in importance are the historical works by writers of third and fourth century of the Muslim era. [30] These include the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him (the sira and hadith literature), which provide further information on Muhammad's life.[25] The earliest surviving written sira (biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn Ishaq's Sirah Rasul Allah (Life of God's Messenger). Although the original work is lost, portions of it survive in the recensions of Ibn Hisham (Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Life of the prophet) and Al-Tabari.[31] According to Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq wrote his biography some 120 to 130 years after Muhammad's death. Many, but not all, scholars accept the accuracy of these biographies, though their accuracy is unascertainable.[26] Another early source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi (death 207 of Muslim era), Maghazi al-Waqidi, and the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd (death 230 of Muslim era) Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd.[30] The biographical dictionaries of Ibn al-Athir and Ibn Hajar provide much detail about the contemporaries of Muhammad but add little to our information about Muhammad himself.[32] Lastly, the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical traditions of Muhammad, date from several generations after the death of Muhammad. Western academics view the hadith collections with caution as accurate historical sources.[33]

There are a few non-Muslim sources which, according to S. A. Nigosian, confirm the existence of Muhammad. The earliest of these sources date to shortly after 634, and the most interesting of them date to some decades later. These sources are valuable for corroboration of the Qur'anic and Muslim tradition statements.[26]


Before Medina
Main article: Muhammad before Medina

Main article: Family tree of Muhammad
Muhammad was born into the Quraysh tribe. He was the son of Abd Allah, son of Abd al-Muttalib (Shaiba) son of Hashim (Amr) son of Abd Manaf (al-Mughira) son of Qusai (Zaid) son of Kilab son of Murra son of Ka'b son of Lu'ay son of Ghalib ibn Fahr (Quraysh) son of Malik son of an-Nadr (Qais) son of Kinana son of Khuzaimah son of Mudrikah (Amir) son of Ilyas son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma'ad son of Adnan, whom the northern Arabs believe to be their common ancestor. Adnan in turn is said to have been a descendant of Ishmael, son of Abraham.[34]

See also: Year of the Elephant and Mawlid
Muhammad was born into the family of Banu Hashim, one of the prominent families of Mecca but the family seems to have not been prosperous during Muhammad's early lifetime.[16][35] Tradition places Muhammad's birth in the Year of the Elephant, commonly identified with 570.[36] Western historians hitherto had accepted the Year of the Elephant to be 570, however according to Watt some new discoveries suggest that the Year of the Elephant might have been 569 or 568.[36] Welch on the other hand holds that the Year of the Elephant should have taken place considerably earlier than 570 and further argues that Muhammad may have been born even later than 570.[16]

Muhammad's birthday is considered by Sunni Muslims to have been the 12th day of the month of Rabi'-ul-Awwal, the third month of the Muslim calendar.[37] Shi'a Muslims believe it to have been the dawn of 17th of the month of Rabi'-ul-Awwal.[38]

Muhammad's father, Abdullah, died almost six months before he was born.[39] According to the tradition, soon after Muhammad's birth, he was sent to live with a Bedouin family in the desert as the desert-life was considered healthier for infants. Muhammad stayed with his foster-mother, Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb, and her husband until he was two years old. Some western scholars of Islam have rejected the historicity of this tradition.[40] At the age of six, Muhammad lost his mother Amina to illness and he became fully orphaned.[41] He was subsequently brought up for two years under the guardianship of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe. When he was eight years of age, his grandfather also died. Muhammad now came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of the Hashim clan of Hashim tribe.[36] According to Watt, because of the general disregard of the guardians in taking care of the weak members of the tribes in Mecca in sixth century, "Muhammad's guardians saw that he did not starve to death, but it was hard for them to do more for him, especially as the fortunes of the clan of Hashim seems to have been declining at that time."[42]

Mecca was a thriving commercial center. There was an important shrine in Mecca (now called the Kaaba) that housed statues of many Arabian gods.[43] Merchants from various tribes would visit Mecca during the pilgrimage season.[43] While still in his teens, Muhammad began accompanying his uncle on trading journeys to Syria gaining some experience in commercial career; the only career open to Muhammad as an orphan.[42]

Middle years
Little is known of Muhammad during his youth, and from the fragmentary information that is available, it is hard to separate history from legend.[44] It is known that he became a merchant and "was involved in trade between the Indian ocean and the Mediterranean Sea."[45] He was given the nickname "Al-Amin" (Arabic: الامين), meaning "faithful, trustworthy" and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator.[16][12][46] His reputation attracted a proposal from Khadijah, a forty-year-old widow in 595.[45] Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one.

Ibn Ishaq records that Khadijah bore Muhammad six children: two sons named Al Qasem and Abdullah (who is also called Abdullah Al Tayeb or Abdullah Al Taher), and four daughters: Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatima. Muhammad was called Abu Al-Qasim (father of Qasim) after his eldest son Qasim, according to Arab customs. All of Khadija's children were born before Muhammad reported receiving his first revelation. Both of Muhammad's sons died in childhood, with Qasim dying at the age of two.[citation needed] But according to some Shia scholars, Fatimah was born after prophecy time and is believed to be Muhammad's only daughter[48] (see: Genealogy of Khadijah's Daughters).

According to the Muslim tradition, the young Muhammad played a role in the restoration of the Kaaba, after parts of it had been destroyed by one of Mecca's frequent flash floods.[49] When the reconstruction was almost done, disagreements arose as to who would have the honor of lifting the Black Stone into place and different clans were about to take up arms against each other. One of the elders suggested they take the advice of the first one who entered the gates of the Haram. This happened to be Muhammad. He spread out his cloak, put the stone in the middle and had members of the four major clans raise it to its destined position. The cloak became an important symbol for later poets and writers.[50]

Beginnings of the Qur'an
See also: Wahy

Muhammad often retreated to Mount Hira near Mecca. Islamic tradition holds that the angel Gabriel began communicating with him here in the year 610 and commanded Muhammad to recite the following verses:[51]

Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created- Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,- He Who taught (the use of) the pen,- Taught man that which he knew not.(Surah 96:1-5)

Upon receiving his first revelations he was deeply distressed. When he returned home he related the event to his wife Khadijah, and told her that he contemplated throwing himself off the top of a mountain.[52] He was consoled and reassured by Khadijah and her Christian cousin, Waraqah ibn Nawfal. This was followed by a pause of three years during which Muhammad gave himself up further to prayers and spiritual practices. When the revelations resumed he was reassured and commanded to begin preaching (Surah 93:1-11).[53]

According to Welch, these revelations were accompanied by mysterious seizures as the reports are unlikely to have been forged by later Muslims.[16] Muhammad was confident that he could distinguish his own thoughts from these messages.[54]

Early years in Mecca

According to the Muslim tradition, Muhammad's wife Khadija was the first to believe he was a prophet.[56] She was soon followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, close friend Abu Bakr, and adopted son Zaid. The identity of the first male Muslim is a controversial subject.[56]

Around 613, Muhammad began to preach amongst Meccans most of whom ignored it and a few mocked him, while some others became his followers. There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants; people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it; and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners..[57]

According to Ibn Sad, in this period, the Quraysh "did not criticize what he [Muhammad] said… When he passed by them as they sat in groups, they would point out to him and say "There is the youth of the clan of Abd al-Muttalib who speaks (things) from heaven."[10] According to Welch, the Qur'anic verses at this time were not "based on a dogmatic conception of monotheism but on a strong general moral and religious appeal". Its key themes include the moral responsibility of man towards his creator; the resurrection of dead, God's final judgment followed by vivid descriptions of the tortures in hell and pleasures in Paradise; use of the nature and wonders of everyday life, particularly the phenomenon of man, as signs of God to show the existence of a greater power who will take into account the greed of people and their suppression of the poor. Religious duties required of the believers at this time were few: belief in God, asking for forgiveness of sins, offering frequent prayers, assisting others particularly those in need, rejecting cheating and the love of wealth (considered to be significant in the commercial life of Mecca), being chaste and not to kill new-born girls.[58]

Opposition in Mecca
See also: Migration to Abyssinia
According to Ibn Sad, the opposition in Mecca started when Muhammad delivered verses that "spoke shamefully of the idols they [the Meccans] worshiped other than …[God] and mentioned the perdition of their fathers who died in disbelief."[10] According to Watt, as the ranks of Muhammad's followers swelled, he became a threat to the local tribes and the rulers of the city, whose wealth rested upon the Kaaba, the focal point of Meccan religious life, which Muhammad threatened to overthrow. Muhammad’s denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba.[57]

The great merchants tried (but failed) to come to some arrangements with Muhammad in exchange for abandoning his preaching. They offered him admission into the inner circle of merchants and establishing his position in the circle by an advantageous marriage.[57] Some western scholars suggest that the opposition became an open breach after the incident of the satanic verses (see below).[59]

Tradition records at great length the persecution and ill-treatment of Muhammad and his followers.[16] Sumayya bint Khubbat, a slave of Abū Jahl and a prominent Meccan leader, is famous as the first martyr of Islam, having been killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith. Bilal, another Muslim slave, was tortured by Umayya ibn khalaf who placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion.[60][61] Apart from insults, Muhammad was protected from physical harm due to belonging to the Banu Hashim.[62][63]

In 615, some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum and founded a small colony there under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian king.[16] While the traditions view the persecutions of Meccans to have played the major role in the emigration, William Montgomery Watt states "there is reason to believe that some sort of division within the embryonic Muslim community played a role and that some of the emigrants may have gone to Abyssinia to engage in trade, possibly in competition with prominent merchant families in Mecca."[16]

The earliest surviving traditions describe Muhammad's involvement at this time in an episode that has come to be known as the "Story of the Cranes" -- a story that some scholars have dubbed the "satanic verses." The account holds that Muhammad pronounced a verse acknowledging the existence of three Meccan goddesses considered to be the daughters of Allah, praising them, and appealing for their intercession. According to these accounts, Muhammad later retracted the verses, saying Gabriel had instructed him to do so.[64] Islamic scholars vigorously objected to the historicity of the incident as early as the tenth century CE[65] In any event, the relations between the Muslims and their pagan fellow-tribesmen rapidly deteriorated.

According to tradition, the leaders of Makhzum and Abd Shams, two important clans of Quraysh, declared a public boycott against the clan of Banu Hashim, their commercial rival, in order to put pressure on the clan to withdraw its protection from Muhammad. The boycott lasted for three years but eventually collapsed mainly because it was not achieving its purpose.[66][67]

Last years in Mecca
In 619, the "year of sorrows," both Muhammad's wife Khadijah and his uncle Abu Talib died. With the death of Abu Talib, the leadership of the clan of Banu Hashim was passed to Abu Lahab who was an inveterate enemy of Muhammad. Soon afterwards Abu Lahab withdrew the clan's protection from Muhammad. This placed Muhammad under the danger of death since the withdrawal of clan protection implied that the blood revenge for his killing would not be exacted. Muhammad then tried to find a protector for himself in another important city in Arabia, Ta'if, but his effort failed and further brought him into physical danger.[67][16] Muhammad was forced to return to Mecca. A Meccan man named Mut'im b. Adi (and the protection of the tribe of Banu Nawfal) made it possible for him safely to re-enter his native city.[16][67]

Many people were visiting Mecca on business or as pilgrims to the Kaaba. Muhammad took this opportunity to look for a new home for himself and his followers. After several unsuccessful negotiations, he found hope with some men from Yathrib (later called Medina).[16] The Arab population of Yathrib were somewhat familiar with monotheism because a Jewish community existed in that city.[16]

Isra and Mi'raj
Main article: Isra and Mi'raj

Some time in 620, Muhammad told his followers that he had experienced the Isra and Miraj, a miraculous journey said to have been accomplished in one night along with the angel Gabriel. In the first part of the journey, the Isra, he is said to have travelled from Mecca to "the farthest mosque" (in Arabic: masjid al-aqsa), which Muslims usually identify with the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. In the second part, the Miraj, Muhammad is said to have toured heaven and hell, and spoken with earlier prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Ibn Ishaq, author of first biography of Muhammad, presents this event as a spiritual experience while later historians like Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir present it as a physical journey.[68] Those Muslims subscribing to the latter view consider the Foundation Stone under the Dome of the Rock to be the site from which Muhammad ascended to heaven on the Buraq.[citation needed]

Muhammad in Medina

Hijra to Medina
Main articles: Migration to Medina and Muhammad in Medina
A delegation from Medina, consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina, invited Muhammad as a neutral outsider to Medina to serve as the chief arbitrator for the entire community.[69][70] There was fighting in Yathrib mainly involving its Arab and Jewish inhabitants for around a hundred years before 620.[69] The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims, especially after the battle of Bu'ath in which all the clans were involved, made it obvious to them that the tribal conceptions of blood-feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless "there was one man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases."[69]

Muhammad instructed his followers to emigrate to Medina until virtually all of his followers had left Mecca. Being alarmed at the departure of Muslims, according to the tradition, the Meccans plotted to assassin Muhammad. With the help of Ali, however, Muhammad fooled the Meccans who were watching him, and secretly slipped away from the town.[71] By 622, Muhammad had emigrated to Medina, then known as Yathrib, a large agricultural oasis. [72] Following the emigration, the Meccans seized the properties of the Muslim emigrants in Mecca.[73]

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Constitution of MedinaAmong the things Muhammad did in order to settle down the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was drafting a document known as the Constitution of Medina (date debated), "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca, which specified the rights and duties of all citizens and the relationship of the different communities in Medina (including that of the Muslim community to other communities specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book").[69][70] The community defined in the Constitution of Medina, umma, had a religious outlook but was also shaped by the practical considerations and substantially preserved the legal forms of the old Arab tribes.[58]

The first group of pagan converts to Islam in Medina were the clans who had not produced great leaders for themselves but had suffered from warlike leaders from other clans. This was followed by the general acceptance of Islam by the pagan population of Medina, apart from some exception. This was according to Ibn Ishaq influenced by the conversion of Sa'd ibn Muadh, one of the prominent leaders in Medina to Islam. The Jewish clans however kept aloof from Islam though in the course of time there were a few converts from them.[74] After his migration to Medina, Muhammad's attitude towards Christians and Jews changed. Norman Stillman states:[75]

During this fateful time, fraught with tension after the Hidjra [migration to Medina], when Muhammad encountered contradiction, ridicule and rejection from the Jewish scholars in Medina, he came to adopt a radically more negative view of the people of the Book who had received earlier scriptures. This attitude was already evolving in the third Meccan period as the Prophet became more aware of the antipathy between Jews and Christians and the disagreements and strife amongst members of the same religion. The Qur'an at this time states that it will "relate [correctly] to the Children of Israel most of that about which they differ" (XXVII, 76).

Beginnings of armed conflict
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Please see the discussion on the talk page.
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Economically uprooted and with no available profession besides that of arms, the Muslim migrants turned to raiding Meccan caravans for their livelihood, thus initiating armed conflict between the Muslims and Mecca.[76][77][78][79] Muhammad delivered Qur'anic verses permitting the Muslims to fight the Meccans (see Qur'an 22:39–40).[80] These attacks provoked and pressured Mecca by interfering with trade, and allowed the Muslims to acquire wealth, power and prestige while working toward their ultimate goal of inducing Mecca's submission to the new faith.[81][82] In March of 624, Muhammad led some three hundred warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan. The Muslims set an ambush for the Meccans at Badr.[83] Aware of the plan, the Meccan caravan eluded Muslims. Meanwhile a force from Mecca was sent to protect the caravan. The force did not return home upon hearing that the caravan was safe. The battle of Badr began in March of 624.[84] Though outnumbered more than three to one, the Muslims won the battle, killing at least forty-five Meccans and taking seventy prisoners for ransom; only fourteen Muslims died. They had also succeeded in killing many of the Meccan leaders, including Abu Jahl.[85] Muhammad himself did not fight, directing the battle from a nearby hut alongside Abu Bakr.[86] In the weeks following the battle, Meccans visited Medina in order to ransom captives from Badr. Many of these had belonged to wealthy families, and were likely ransomed for a considerable sum. Those captives who were not sufficiently influential or wealthy were usually freed without ransom. Muhammad's decision was that those who were wealthy but did not ransom themselves should be killed.[87][88] Muhammad ordered the immediate execution of two men without entertaining offers for their release.[88] One of the men, Uqba ibn Abu Mu'ayt, had written verses about Muhammad, and the other had said that his own stories about Persians were as good as the tales of the Qur'an.[87] The raiders had won much booty, and the battle helped to stabilize the Medinan community.[89] Muhammad and his followers saw in the victory a confirmation of their faith. [16]

With the early general conversion of Medinian pagans to Islam, the pagan opposition in Medina was never of prime importance in the affairs of Medina. Those remaining pagans in Medina were very bitter about the advance of Islam. In particular Asma bint Marwan and Abu Afak had composed verses taunting and insulting some of the Muslims. These two were assassinated and Muhammad did not disapprove of it. No one dared to take vengeance on them, and some of the members of the clan of Asma bint Marwan who had previously converted to Islam in secret, now professed Islam openly. This marked an end to the overt opposition to Muhammad among the pagans in Medina.[90]

Muhammad expelled from Medina the Banu Qaynuqa, one of the three main Jewish tribes.[16] Jewish opposition "may well have been for political as well as religious reasons".[91] On religious grounds, the Jews were skeptical of the possibility of a non-Jewish prophet,[92] and also had concerns about possible incompatibilities between the Qur'an and their own scriptures.[92][93] The Qur'an's response regarding the possibility of a non-Jew being a prophet was that Abraham was not a Jew. The Qur'an also stated that it was "restoring the pure monotheism of Abraham which had been corrupted in various, clearly specified, ways by Jews and Christians".[92] According to Francis Edward Peters, "The Jews also began secretly to connive with Muhammad's enemies in Mecca to overthrow him."[94]

Following the battle of Badr, Muhammad also made mutual-aid alliances with a number of Bedouin tribes to protect his community from attacks from the northern part of Hijaz.[16]

Conflict with Mecca
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Please see the discussion on the talk page.
This section has been tagged since December 2007.
Timeline of Muhammad
Important dates and locations in the life of Muhammad
c. 569 Death of his father, `Abd Allah
c. 570 Possible date of birth, April 20: Mecca
576 Death of Mother
578 Death of Grandfather
c. 583 Takes trading journeys to Syria
c. 595 Meets and marries Khadijah
610 First reports of Qur'anic revelation
c. 610 Appears as Prophet of Islam
c. 613 Begins spreading message of Islam publicly
c. 614 Begins to gather following in Mecca
c. 615 Emigration of Muslims to Ethiopia
616 Banu Hashim clan boycott begins
c. 618 Medinan Civil War
619 Banu Hashim clan boycott ends
619 The year of sorrows: Khadijah and Abu Talib die
c. 620 Isra and Miraj
622 Emigrates to Medina (Hijra)
624 Battle of Badr: Muslims defeat Meccans
624 Expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa
625 Battle of Uhud: Meccans defeat Muslims
625 Expulsion of Banu Nadir
626 Attack on Dumat al-Jandal (Syria)
627 Battle of the Trench
627 Destruction of Banu Qurayza
627 Subjugation of Dumat al-Jandal
628 Treaty of Hudaybiyya
c. 628 Gains access to Meccan shrine Kaaba
628 Conquest of the Khaybar oasis
629 First hajj pilgrimage
629 Attack on Byzantine empire fails: Battle of Mu'tah
630 Attacks and bloodlessly captures Mecca
c. 630 Battle of Hunayn
c. 630 Siege of Taif
630 Conquest of Mecca
c. 631 Rules most of the Arabian peninsula
c. 632 Attacks the Ghassanids: Tabuk
632 Farewell hajj pilgrimage
632 Death (June 8): Medina
The attack at Badr committed Muhammad to total war with Meccans, who were now anxious to avenge their defeat. To maintain their economic prosperity, the Meccans needed to restore their prestige, which had been lost at Badr.[95] The Meccans sent out a small party for a raid on Medina to restore confidence and reconnoiter. The party retreated immediately after a surprise and speedy attack but with minor damages; there was no combat.[96] In the ensuing months, Muhammad led expeditions on tribes allied with Mecca and sent out a raid on a Meccan caravan.[97] Abu Sufyan subsequently gathered an army of three thousand men and set out for an attack on Medina.[98] They were accompanied by some prominent women of Mecca, such as Hind bint Utbah, Abu Sufyan's wife, who had lost family members at Badr. These women provided encouragement in keeping with Bedouin custom, calling out the names of the dead at Badr.[99]

A scout alerted Muhammad of the Meccan army's presence and numbers a day later. The next morning, at the Muslim conference of war, there was dispute over how best to repel the Meccans. Muhammad and many of the senior figures suggested that it would be safer to fight within Medina and take advantage of its heavily fortified strongholds. Younger Muslims argued that the Meccans were destroying their crops, and that huddling in the strongholds would destroy Muslim prestige. Muhammad eventually conceded to the wishes of the latter, and readied the Muslim force for battle. Thus, Muhammad led his force outside to the mountain of Uhud (where the Meccans had camped) and fought the Battle of Uhud on March 23.[100][101]

Although the Muslim army had the best of the early encounters, indiscipline on the part of strategically placed archers led to a Muslim defeat, with 75 Muslims killed. However, the Meccans failed to achieve their aim of destroying the Muslims completely.[102] The Meccans did not occupy the town and withdrew to Mecca because they could not attack on Muhammad's position again for military loss, low morale and possibility of Muslim resistance in the town. There was also hope that Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy leading a group of Muslims in Medina could be won over by diplomacy.[103] Following the defeat, Muhammad's detractors in Medina said that if the victory at Badr was proof of the genuineness of his mission, then the defeat at Uhud was proof that his mission was not genuine.[104] Muhammad subsequently delivered Qur'anic verses ([Qur'an 3:133] and [Qur'an 3:160]) indicating that the loss was partly a punishment for disobedience and partly a test for steadfastness.[105]

The rousing of the nomads
In the battle of Uhud, the Meccans had collected all the available men from Quraysh and the neighboring tribes friendly to them but had not succeeded in the destruction of the Muslim community. In order to raise a more powerful army, Abu Sufyan attracted the support of the great nomadic tribes to the north and east of Medina, using propaganda about Muhammad's weakness, promises of booty, memories of the prestige of Quraysh and straight bribes.[106]

Muhammad's policy in the next two years after the battle of Uhud was to prevent alliances against him as much as he could. Whenever alliances of tribesmen against Medina was formed, he sent out an expedition to break it up.[106] When Muhammad heard of men massing with hostile intentions against Medina, he reacted with severity.[107] One example is the assassination of Ka'b ibn Ashraf, a member of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir who had gone to Mecca and written poems that had helped rouse the Meccans' grief, anger and desire for revenge after the battle of Badr.[108] Around a year later, Muhammad expelled the Jewish Banu Nadir from Medina (see the main article for details).[109]

Muhammad's attempts to prevent formation of confederation against him was not successful though he was able to increase his own forces and stop many tribes from joining the confederation.[110]

A notable incident in this period is the accusation of adultery made against Aisha, Muhammad's wife. Aisha was exonerated from the accusations when Muhammad announced that he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses.[111]

Siege of Medina
Main article: Battle of the Trench
Abu Sufyan, the military leader of Quraysh, with the help of Banu Nadir, the exiled Jewish tribe from Medina, had mustered a force of size 10000 men. Muhammad was able to prepare a force of about 3000 men. He had however adopted a new form of defense, unknown in Arabia at that time: Muslims had dug a trench wherever Medina lay open to cavalry attack. The idea is credited to a Persian convert to Islam, Salman. The siege of Medina began on 31 March 627 and lasted for two weeks.[112] Abu Sufyan's troops were unprepared for the fortifications they were confronted with, and after an ineffectual siege, the coalition decided to go home.[113]

During the Battle of the Trench, the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza who were located at the south of Medina were charged with treachery. After the retreat of the coalition, Muslims besieged Banu Qurayza, the remaining Jewish tribe in Medina. The Banu Qurayza surrendered and all the men, apart from a few who converted to Islam, were beheaded, while all the women and children were enslaved.[114][115] In dealing with Muhammad's treatment of the Jews of Medina, aside from political explanations, Arab historians and biographers have explained it as "the punishment of the Medina Jews, who were invited to convert and refused, perfectly exemplify the Quran's tales of what happened to those who rejected the prophets of old."[116] F.E. Peters, a western scholar of Islam, states that Muhammad's treatment of Jews of Medina was essentially political being prompted by what Muhammad read as treasonous and not some transgression of the law of God.[94] Peters adds that Muhammad was possibly emboldened by his military successes and also wanted to push his advantage. Economical motivations according to Peters also existed since the poorness of the Meccan migrants was a source of concern for Muhammad.[117] Peters argues that Muhammad's treatment of the Jews of Medina was "quite extraordinary", "matched by nothing in the Qur'an", and is "quite at odds with Muhammad's treatment of the Jews he encountered outside Medina."[94]

In the siege of Medina, the Meccans had exerted their utmost strength towards the destruction of the Muslim community. Their failure resulted in a significant loss of prestige; their trade with Syria was gone.[118]

Truce of Hudaybiyya
Main article: Treaty of Hudaybiyya
Although Muhammad had already delivered Qur'anic verses commanding the Hajj,[119] the Muslims had not performed it due to the enmity of the Quraysh. In the month of Shawwal 628, Muhammad ordered his followers to obtain sacrificial animals and to make preparations for a pilgrimage (umra) to Mecca, saying that God had promised him the fulfillment of this goal in a vision where he was shaving his head after the completion of the Hajj.[120] According to Lewis, Muhammad felt strong enough to attempt an attack on Mecca, but on the way it became clear that the attempt was premature and the expedition was converted into a peaceful pilgrimage.[121] Andrae disagrees, writing that the Muslim state of ihram (which restricted their freedom of action) and the paucity of arms carried indicated that the pilgrimage was always intended to be pacific.[122] Upon hearing of the approaching 1,400 Muslims, the Quraysh sent out a force of 200 cavalry to halt them. Muhammad evaded them by taking a more difficult route, thereby reaching al-Hudaybiyya, just outside of Mecca.[123] According to Watt, although Muhammad's decision to make the pilgrimage was based on his dream but he was at the same time demonstrating to the pagan Meccans that Islam does not threaten the prestige of their sanctuary, and that Islam was an Arabian religion. [124]

Negotiations commenced with emissaries going to and from Mecca. While these continued, rumors spread that one of the Muslim negotiators, Uthman bin al-Affan, had been killed by the Quraysh. Muhammad responded by calling upon the pilgrims to make a pledge not to flee (or to stick with Muhammad, whatever decision he made) if the situation descended into war with Mecca. This pledge became known as the "Pledge of Good Pleasure" (Arabic: بيعة الرضوان , bay'at al-ridhwān) or the "Pledge under the Tree." News of Uthman's safety, however, allowed for negotiations to continue, and a treaty scheduled to last ten years was eventually signed between the Muslims and Quraysh.[123][125] The main points of treaty were the following:

The two parties and their allies should desist from hostilities against each other[126]
Muhammad, should not perform Hajj this year[126]
They may come next year to perform Hajj (unarmed) but shall not stay in Mecca for more than three days[126]
Any Muslim living in Mecca cannot settle in Medina, but Medinan Muslims may come and join Meccans (and will not be returned).[126]
Many Muslims were not satisfied with the terms of the treaty. However, the Qur'anic sura "Al-Fath" (The Victory) (48:1-29) assured the Muslims that the expedition from which they were now returning must be considered a victorious one.[127] It was only later that Muhammad's followers would realise the benefit behind this treaty. These benefits, according to Welch, included the inducing of the Meccans to recognise Muhammad as an equal; a cessation of military activity posing well for the future; and gaining the admiration of Meccans who were impressed by the incorporation of the pilgrimage rituals.[16]

After signing the truce, Muhammad made an expedition against the Jewish oasis of Khaybar. The explanation given by western scholars of Islam for this attack ranges from the presence of the Banu Nadir in Khaybar, who were inciting hostilities along with neighboring Arab tribes against Muhammad, to deflecting from what appeared to some Muslims as the inconclusive result of the truce of Hudaybiyya, increasing Muhammad's prestige among his followers and capturing booty.[98][128] According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad also sent letters to many rulers of the world, asking them to convert to Islam.[129][130][131] Hence he sent messengers (with letters) to Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire (the eastern Roman Empire), Chosroes of Persia, the chief of Yemen and to some others.[129][130]

Conquest of Mecca
Main articles: Conquest of Mecca and Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca

The truce of Hudaybiyya had been enforced for two years.[132][133] The tribe of Khuz'aah had a friendly relationship with Muhammad, while on the other hand their enemies, the Banu Bakr, had an alliance with the Meccans.[132][133] A clan of the Bakr made a night raid against the Khuz'aah, killing a few of them.[132][133] The Meccans helped their allies (i.e., the Banu Bakr) with weapons and, according to some sources, a few Meccans also took part in the fighting.[132] After this event, Muhammad sent a message to Mecca with three conditions, asking them to accept one of them. These were the following[134]

The Meccans were to pay blood-money for those slain among the Khuza'ah tribe, or
They should have nothing to do with the Banu Bakr, or
They should declare the truce of Hudaybiyya null.
The Meccans replied that they would accept only the third condition.[134] However, soon they realized their mistake and sent Abu Safyan to renew the Hudaybiyya treaty, but now his request was declined by Muhammad. Muhammad began to prepare for a campaign.[135]

In 630, Muhammad marched on Mecca with an enormous force, said to number more than ten thousand men. With minimal casualties, Muhammad took control of Mecca.[136] He declared an amnesty for past offences, except for ten men and women who had mocked and made fun of him in songs and verses. Some of these were later pardoned.[137] Most Meccans converted to Islam, and Muhammad subsequently destroyed all of the statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba, without any exception. Henceforth the pilgrimage would be a Muslim pilgrimage and the shrine was converted to a Muslim shrine.[citation needed]

Conquest of Arabia

The capitulation of Mecca and the defeat of an alliance of enemy tribes at Hunayn effectively brought the greater part of the Arabian peninsula under Muhammad's authority. However, this authority was not enforced by a regular government, as Muhammad chose instead to rule through personal relationships and tribal treaties. The Muslims were clearly the dominant force in Arabia, and most of the remaining tribes and states hastened to convert to Islam.[citation needed]

In 632, Muhammad fell ill and suffered for several days with head pain and weakness. He succumbed on Monday, June 8, 632, in the city of Medina. He is buried in his tomb (which previously was in his wife Aisha's house) which is now housed within Mosque of the Prophet in Medina.[138]

Marriages and children
Main article: Muhammad's family
Part of a series on Islam:
The Wives of Muhammad
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid

Sawda bint Zama*

Aisha bint Abi Bakr*

Hafsa bint Umar

Zaynab bint Khuzayma

Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya

Zaynab bint Jahsh

Juwayriya bint al-Harith

Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan

Rayhana bint Amr ibn Khunafa**

Safiyya bint Huyayy

Maymuna bint al-Harith

Maria al-Qibtiyya**

*succession disputed

** status as wife or concubine is disputed

Muhammad's life is traditionally defined into two epochs: pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca, a city in northern Arabia, from the year 570 to 622, and post-hijra in Medina, from 622 until his death in 632. Muhammad is said to have had thirteen wives or concubines (there are differing accounts on the status of some of them as wife or concubine [139])[140] All but two of his marriages were contracted after the migration to Medina.

At the age of 25, Muhammad married Khadijah which lasted for 25 years.[141] This marriage is described as "long" and "happy," and he relied upon Khadija in many ways.[142][143] Muhammad did not enter into marriage with another woman during his marriage with Khadija. After her death, friends of Muhammad advised him to marry again, but he was reluctant to do so.[143][142] It was suggested to Muhammad by Khawla bint Hakim, that he should marry Sawda bint Zama, a Muslim widow, or Aisha. Muhammad is said to have asked her to arrange for him to marry both. [144] Later, Muhammad married additional wives nine of whom survived him.[140]

In Arabian culture, marriage was generally contracted in accordance with the larger needs of the tribe and was based on the need to form alliances within the tribe and with other tribes. Virginity at the time of marriage was emphasized as a tribal honor.[145] Watt states that all of Muhammad's marriages had the political aspect of strengthening friendly relationships and were based on the Arabian custom. [146] Esposito points out that some of Muhammad's marriages were aimed at providing a livelihood for widows.[147] F.E. Peters says that it is hard to make generalizations about Muhammad's marriages: many of them were political, some compassionate, and some perhaps affairs of heart.[148]

Muhammad is said to have done his own household chores, helped out with the housework, such preparing food, sewing clothes, and repairing shoes. Muhammad is said to had accustomed his wives to dialogue; he listened to their advice, and the wives debated and even argued with him.[149][150]

Khadijah is said to have borne Muhammad four daughters (Ruqayyah bint Muhammad,Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad,Zainab bint Muhammad,Fatima Zahra) and two sons (Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad and Qasim ibn Muhammad), though all except two of his daughters, Fatima and Zaynab died before him. Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son named Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, but the child died when he was two years old.[151]

Main articles: Sahaba and Salaf
The term Sahaba (companion) refers to anyone who meets three criteria: to be a contemporary of Muhammad, to have heard Muhammad speak on at least one occasion, and to be a convert to Islam. Companions are considered the ultimate sources for the oral traditions, or hadith, on which much of Muslim law and practice are based. The following are a few examples in alphabetic order:

Abdullah ibn Abbas
Abu Bakr
Abu Dharr
Ali ibn Abi Talib
Khalid ibn al-Walid
Salman the Persian

Muhammad the reformer
Main article: Early reforms under Islam
According to William Montgomery Watt, for Muhammad, religion was not a private and individual matter but rather “the total response of his personality to the total situation in which he found himself. He was responding [not only]… to the religious and intellectual aspects of the situation but also to the economic, social, and political pressures to which contemporary Mecca was subject."[152]

Bernard Lewis says that there are two important political traditions in Islam — one that views Muhammad as a statesman in Medina, and another that views him as a rebel in Mecca. He sees Islam itself as a type of revolution that greatly changed the societies into which the new religion was brought.[153]

Historians generally agree that Islamic social reforms in areas such as social security, family structure, slavery and the rights of women and children improved on what was present in existing Arab society.[153][154] For example, according to Lewis, Islam "from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents"[153]

Muhammad's message transformed the society and moral order of life in the Arabian Peninsula through reorientation of society as regards to identity, world view, and the hierarchy of values.[155]

Economic reforms addressed the plight of the poor, which was becoming an issue in pre-Islamic Mecca.[156] The Qur'an requires payment of an alms tax (zakat) for the benefit of the poor,[157] and as Muhammad's position grew in power he demanded that those tribes who wanted to ally with him implement the zakat in particular.[158]

Miracles in the Muslim biographies
Main article: Islamic view of miracles
According to historian Denis Gril, the Qur'an does not overtly describe Muhammad performing miracles, and the supreme miracle of Muhammad is finally identified with the Qur’an itself. [159] However, Muslim tradition credits Muhammad with several supernatural events.[160] For example, many Muslim commentators and some western scholars have interpreted the Surah 54:1-2 to refer to Muhammad splitting the Moon in view of the Quraysh when they had begun to persecute his followers.[159][161] This tradition has inspired many Muslim poets, especially in India.[16]

Modern Muslim biographies of Muhammad more often portray him as a progressive social and political reformer, successful military leader and model of human virtue.[162] According to Carl Ernst, Muslims began to de-emphasize superhuman views of Muhammad following the growth of scientific rationalism in Muslim countries.[163] Daniel Brown adds that Muslims of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, faced with social and political turmoil and the challenge of reforming Islamic law, began looking to Muhammad's life for examples which might more practically address these problems.[162]

Traditional views of Muhammad
Muslims have traditionally expressed love and veneration for Muhammad. Stories of Muhammad's life, his intercession and of his miracles (particularly "Splitting of the moon") have permeated popular Muslim thought and poetry. The Qur'an refers to Muhammad as "a mercy (rahmat) to the worlds" [Qur'an 21:107].[16] The association of rain with rahmat (mercy) in Oriental countries has led to imagination of Muhammad as a rain cloud dispensing blessing and stretching over lands, reviving the dead hearts, just as rain revives the seemingly dead earth (see for example the Sindhi poem of Shah ʿAbd al-Latif).[16] The story of ascension of Muhammad to heaven (mi'radj) is described in much details by poems in Turkey, India, Africa and other countries. The folk traditions contain miracles attributed to Muhammad not mentioned in the Qur'an (such as trees bowing before Muhammad, or a cloud protecting him from the sun).[16]

Muslims, especially Sufi Muslims, regard Muhammad as God's last messenger, and al-insan al-kamil, meaning, the "perfect man".[164] There are legends telling of how the whole world was filled with light at Muhammad's birth.[16]

Seal of the prophets

Inscribed inside the names are Qur'anic verses; the one inside the word "Allah" is the Ayat-ul-Kursi and the one inscribed inside the word "Muhammad" asserts that Muhammad is the last prophet.

Muslims believe Muhammad to be the last in a line of prophets of God (Arabic Allah) and regard his mission as one of restoring the original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and other prophets of Islam that had become altered by man over time.[15][16][10] The Qur'an specifically refers to Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets", which is taken by most Muslims to believe him to be the last of the prophets.[166][167][168][23] Welch however holds that this Muslim belief is most likely a later interpretation of the Seal of the Prophets.[16] Carl Ernst considers this phrase to mean that Muhammad's "imprint on history is as final as a wax seal on a letter".[23] Wilferd Madelung states that the meaning of this term is not certain.[169]

Depictions of Muhammad
Main article: Depictions of Muhammad
Islam forbids visual depictions of Muhammad.[170] That strict taboo is honored today by almost all Muslims.[171] The taboo is stronger in Sunni Islam (representing 85–90% of the world’s Muslim population) than Shia (10–15%).[20]

Figurative art of Muhammad was a significant part of late medieval Islamic art; however, it was generally limited to secular contexts and to the elite classes who could afford fine art.[19] Depictions of Muhammad were common during the Ottoman Empire, when the taboo on portraying him was less strong, although his face was often left blank.[20]

Muslim veneration of Muhammad
See also: Muslim veneration for Muhammad, Naat, Depiction of Muhammad, Islamic music, and Qawwali

It is traditional for Muslims to illustrate and express love and veneration for Muhammad. Muhammad's birthday is celebrated as a major feast throughout the Islamic world, excluding the Wahhabi-dominated Saudi Arabia where these public celebrations are discouraged. In these celebrations, Muslims remember the miracles associated with Muhammad's life, "repeat the Qur'anic dictum that Muhammad was sent as 'mercy unto all the worlds', ask for his intercession on the Day of Judgment, hoping to assemble that day under the green 'flag of praise' carried by him." [172]

Muslim experience Muhammad as a living reality believing in his ongoing relation with human beings as well as animals and plants. Seyyed Hossein Nasr states: [172]

The benediction upon the Prophet punctuates daily Muslim life, and traditional Islamic life reminds one at every turn of his ubiquitous presence. He even plays a major role in dreams. There are many prayers recited in order to be able to have a dream of the Prophet, who promised that the Devil could never appear in a dream in the form of Muhammad. Not only for saints and mystics but also for many ordinary pious people, a simple dream of the Prophet has been able to transform a whole human life. One might say that the reality of the Prophet penetrates the life of Muslims on every level, from the external existence of the individual and of Islamic society as a whole to the life of the psyche and the soul and finally to the life of the spirit.

When Muslims say or write the name of Muhammad or any other Muslim prophet, they usually follow it with Peace be upon him or its Arabic equivalent, sallalahu alayhi wasallam,[173] and for Shias this is extended to Peace be upon him and his descendants. In English this is often abbreviated to "(pbuh)", "(saw)" and "pbuh&hd" for Shias, or even just simply as "p".

Christian and Western views of Muhammad
Main article: Christian view of Muhammad
While Muslim writers have tended to speak highly of Muhammad, Western tradition has at times been critical of him.[174][175]

Popular image of Muhammad in medieval times
In the 12th century, Chansons de geste that mentioned Muhammad presented him as an idol to whom Muslims prayed for aid in battle.[16][176] Some medieval Christians said he had died in 666, alluding to the number of the beast, instead of 632;[177] others changed his name from Muhammad to Mahound, the "devil incarnate".[178] Bernard Lewis writes "The development of the concept of Mahound started with considering Muhammad as a kind of demon or false god worshipped with Apollyon and Termangant in an unholy trinity."[179] To discredit Islam, Muhammad was represented as an idol or one of the heathen gods during the first and second Crusade.[16]

Later medieval representations
From the middle of the 13th century, mentions of Muhammad in vernacular chivalric romance literature begin to appear. A poem represents Muhammad as "someone in bondage. Through his cleverly contrived marriage to the widow of his former master, he not only attains his freedom and wealth but also knows how to cover up his epileptic attacks as phenomena accompanying visitations of angels and to pose as a new messenger of God's will through deceitful machinations."[16] From this period is Scala Mahomete, a translation of an Arabic text, largely without Christian evaluations.[16] In a polemical tone, Livre dou Tresor represents Muhammad as a former monk and cardinal.[16] Dante's The Divine Comedy (Canto XXVIII), puts Muhammad, together with Ali, in Hell "among the sowers of discord and the schismatics, being lacerated by devils again and again."[16]

Early modern times
After the reformation, Muhammad was no longer viewed as a god or idol, but as a cunning, ambitious, and self-seeking impostor.[179][16]

Guillaume Postel was among the first to present a more positive view of Muhammad.[16] Boulainvilliers described Muhammad as a gifted political leader and a just lawmaker.[16] Leibniz praised Muhammad because "he did not deviate from the natural religion".[16]

Modern times
Friedrich Bodenstedt (1851) described Muhammad as "an ominous destroyer and a prophet of murder."[16]

According to Watt and Richard Bell, recent writers have generally dismissed the idea that Muhammad deliberately deceived his followers, arguing that Muhammad “was absolutely sincere and acted in complete good faith”.[180] Watt says that sincerity does not directly imply correctness: In contemporary terms, Muhammad might have mistaken for divine revelation his own unconscious.[181] Although Muhammad's image in the west is much less unfavorable than in the past, prejudicial folk beliefs remain.[182]

Watt and Lewis argue that viewing Muhammad as a self-seeking imposter makes it impossible to understand the development of Islam.[183][184] Welch holds that Muhammad was able to be so influential and successful because of his firm belief in his vocation.[16] Muhammad’s readiness to endure hardship for his cause when there seemed to be no rational basis for hope shows his sincerity.[185]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints considers Muhammad, along with Confucius, the Reformers, as well as philosophers including Socrates, Plato, and others, to have received a portion of God´s light and that moral truths were given to them to enlighten nations and bring a higher level of understanding to individuals.[186]

Other religious traditions in regard to Muhammad
The Druze, who accept most but not all Qur'anic revelations, also consider him a prophet.
Bahá'ís venerate Muhammad as one of a number of prophets or "Manifestations of God", but consider his teachings to have been superseded by those of Bahá'u'lláh.

See also
Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad
Depictions of Muhammad
Criticism of Muhammad
Islamic view of Muhammad
Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy
List of films about Muhammad
Mohammad, Messenger of God (aka The Message)
Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet (documentary)
List of founders of world religions
List of Islamic terms in Arabic
Early reforms under Islam
Early Islamic philosophy

^ Muhittin Serin: Hattat Aziz Efendi, Istanbul (1988, 1999), ISBN 9-7576-6303-4, OCLC 51718704
^ Unicode has a special "Muhammad" ligature at U+FDF4 ﷴ
^ click here (help·info) for the Arabic pronunciation.
^ Variants of Muhammad's name in French: "Mahon, Mahomés, Mahun, Mahum, Mahumet"; in German: "Machmet"; and in Old Icelandic: "Maúmet" cf Muhammad, Encyclopedia of Islam
^ Welch, noting the frequency of Muhammad being called as "Al-Amin"(Arabic: الأمين ), a common Arab name, suggests the possibility of "Al-Amin" being Muhammad's given name as it is a masculine form from the same root as his mother's name, A'mina. cf. "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam Online; The sources frequently say that he, in his youth, was called by the nickname "Al-Amin" meaning "Honest, Truthful" cf. Ernst (2004), p. 85.
^ Elizabeth Goldman (1995). Believers: spiritual leaders of the world. Oxford University Press, 63.
^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977) writes that "It is appropriate to use the word 'God' rather than the transliteration 'Allah'. For one thing it cannot be denied that Islam is an offshoot of the Judaeo-Christians tradition, and for another the Christian Arabs of today have no other word for 'God' than 'Allah'." cf p. 32.
^ Esposito (1998), p. 12.
^ Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5.
^ a b c d e F. E. Peters (2003), p. 9.
^ Alphonse de Lamartine (1854), Historie de la Turquie, Paris, p. 280:
"Philosophe, orateur, apôtre, législateur, guerrier, conquérant d'idées, restaurateur de dogmes, d'un culte sans images, fondateur de vingt empires terrestres et d'un empire spirituel, voilà Mahomet!"

^ a b Encyclopedia of World History (1998), p. 452
^ The word "islām" derives from the triconsonantal Arabic root sīn-lām-mīm, which carries the basic meaning of safety and peace. The verbal noun "islām" is formed from the verb aslama, a derivation of this root which means to accept, surrender, or submit; thus, 'Islam' effectively means submission to and acceptance of God. See: Islam#Etymology and meaning
^ 'Islam' is always referred to in the Qur'an as a 'dīn', a word that means 'way' or 'path' in Arabic, but is usually translated in English as 'religion' for the sake of convenience
^ a b Esposito (1998), p. 12; (1999) p. 25; (2002) pp. 4–5
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam Online
^ After Muhammad's migration to Yathrib, the city came to be known as Madina al-Nabi, lit. 'City of the Prophet'; hence, the name Medina
^ The term Qur'an was first used in the Qur'an itself. There are two different theories about this term and its formation that are discussed in Quran#Etymology cf. "Qur'an", Encyclopedia of Islam Online.
^ a b Islamic Figurative Art and Depictions of Muhammad. Retrieved on 2008-01-02.
^ a b c Browne, Anthony; Gledhill, Ruth (2006-02-04). Portraying prophet from Persian art to South Park. The Times. Retrieved on 2008-01-02.
^ Dan McCormack. Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved on August 14, 2006.
^ There are reports of other Arabs before Muhammad who were named "Muhammad" (e.g. Ibn Sa'd). Welch (cf. "Muhammad", "Encyclopedia of Islam") accepts usage of the name "Muhammad" among Arabs but also points out that these reports have a tendentious nature. For example Ibn Sa'd's report has the heading, "Account of those who were named Muhammad in the days of the jahilliya Pre-Islamic Arabia in the hope of being called to prophethood which had been predicted."
^ a b c Ernst (2004), p. 80
^ Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th century Ottoman Art". In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 1–24. Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23–28, 1999, p. 7
^ a b Reeves (2003), pp. 6–7
^ a b c d Islam, S. A. Nigosian, p. 6 , Indiana University Press
^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Muhammad
^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 32
^ F. E. Peters, The Quest for Historical Muhammad, International Journal of Middle East Studies (1991) pp. 291–315.
^ a b William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad in Mecca, Oxford University Press, p.xi
^ Donner (1998), p. 132
^ William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad in Mecca, Oxford University Press, p.xii
^ Lewis (1993), pp. 33–34
^ Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum: The Lineage and Family of Muhammad by Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri
^ See also [Qur'an 43:31] cited in EoI; Muhammad
^ a b c William Montgomery Watt (1974), p. 7.
^ By Mufti Taqi Usmani.
^ Allameh Tabatabaei, A glance at the life of the holy prophet of Islam, p. 20
^ Josef W. Meri (2005), p. 525
^ William Montgomery Watt, "Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb", Encyclopaedia of Islam
^ William Montgomery Watt, Amina, Encyclopaedia of Islam
^ a b William Montgomery Watt (1974), p. 8.
^ a b Chris Charles Park (1994), p. 266.
^ William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman, p. 8.
^ a b Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2005), v.3, p. 1025
^ Esposito (1998), p. 6
^ Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th century Ottoman Art". In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 1–24. Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23–28, 1999, p. 3
^ Ordoni (1990) pp. 32, 42–44.
^ FE Peters (2003), p. 54.
^ Jonathan M. Bloom, Sheila S. Blair (2002), p. 28–29
^ Brown (2003), pp. 72–73
^ Rodinson, p. 71.
^ Brown (2003), pp. 73–74
^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 31.
^ Le Prophète Mahomet. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved on 03-02-2007.
^ a b William Montgomery Watt (1953), p. 86
^ a b c The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 36.
^ a b Welch, Muhammad, Encyclopedia of Islam.
^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 37
^ Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Slaves and Slavery
^ Bilal b. Rabah, Encyclopedia of Islam
^ Watt (1964) p. 76.
^ Peters (1999) p. 172.
^ Some early Islamic histories recount that as Muhammad was reciting Sūra Al-Najm (Q.53), as revealed to him by the angel Gabriel, Satan tempted him to utter the following lines after verses 19 and 20: "Have you thought of Allāt and al-'Uzzā and Manāt the third, the other; These are the exalted Gharaniq, whose intercession is hoped for." (Allāt, al-'Uzzā and Manāt were three goddesses worshiped by the Meccans). cf Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume p. 166.
^ EoQ, Satanic Verses, Shahab Ahmed
^ Francis E. Peters, The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, p. 96
^ a b c Moojan Momen, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism, Yale University Press, p. 4
^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003), p. 482
^ a b c d The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 39
^ a b Esposito (1998), p. 17.
^ Moojan Momen, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism, Yale University Press, p. 5
^ Muhammad, Encyclopedia of Islam
^ Fazlur Rahman, Islam, Chicago University Press, p. 21
^ William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad in Medina, pp. 175, 177.
^ Norman Stillman, Yahud, Encyclopedia of Islam
^ Lewis, "The Arabs in History," 2003, p. 44.
^ Francis E. Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 211.
^ Montgomery Watt, Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman, Oxford University Press, 1961, p. 105.
^ Montgomery Watt, Muhammad at Medina, p. 2.
^ John Kelsay, Islam and War: A Study in Comparative Ethics, p. 21
^ Watt, Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman, Oxford University Press, 1961, p. 105, 107
^ Bernard Lewis (1993), p. 41.
^ Rodinson, p. 164.
^ The Cambridge History of Islam, p. 45
^ Glubb (2002), pp. 179–186.
^ Watt (1961), pp. 122–3.
^ a b Watt (1961), p. 123.
^ a b Maxime Rodinson, Muhammad, pp. 168–9.
^ Lewis, "The Arabs in History," p. 44.
^ Watt (1956), p. 179.
^ Endress (2003), p. 29
^ a b c The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), pp. 43–44
^ Cohen (1995), p. 23
^ a b c Francis Edward Peters (2003), p. 194.
^ Watt (1961), p. 132.
^ Watt (1964), pp. 124–125
^ Watt (1961), p. 134
^ a b Lewis (1960), p. 45.
^ Rodinson, pp. 177, 180.
^ "Uhud", Encyclopedia of Islam.
^ Watt (1964) p. 137
^ Watt (1974) p. 137
^ Watt (1974) p. 141
^ Rodinson, p. 183.
^ Watt (1964) p. 144.
^ a b Watt, Muhammad in Medina, p. 30.
^ Watt, Muhammad in Medina, p. 34
^ Watt, Muhammad in Medina, p. 18
^ Watt, Muhammad in Medina, pp. 220–221
^ Watt, Muhammad in Medina, p. 35
^ Watt, M "Aisha bint Abi Bakr". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
^ Watt, Muhammad in Medina, p. 36, 37
^ Rodinson, pp. 209–211.
^ Peterson, Muhammad: the prophet of God, p. 126
^ Tariq Ramadan, In the Footsteps of the Prophet, Oxford University Press, p. 141
^ Francis Edwards Peters (2003), p. 77
^ F.E.Peters (2003), pp. 76–8.
^ Watt, Muhammad in Medina, p. 39
^ [Qur'an 2:196-210]
^ Lings (1987), p. 249
^ Lewis (2002), p. 42.
^ Andrae; Menzel (1960) p. 156; See also: Watt (1964) p. 183
^ a b "al-Hudaybiya", Encyclopedia of Islam
^ Watt, W. Montgomery. "al- Hudaybiya or al-Hudaybiyya." Encyclopaedia of Islam.
^ Lewis (2002), p. 42.
^ a b c d Lings (1987), p. 253
^ Lings (1987), p. 255
^ Veccia Vaglieri, L. "Khaybar", Encyclopaedia of Islam
^ a b Lings (1987), p. 260
^ a b Khan (1998), pp. 250–251
^ Haykal (1995), p. 360
^ a b c d Khan (1998), p. 274
^ a b c Lings (1987), p. 291
^ a b Khan (1998), pp. 274–5.
^ Lings (1987), p. 292
^ Watt, Muhammad in Medina. 1956, p. 66.
^ Rodinson, p. 261.
^ Leila Ahmed (Summer 1986). "Women and the Advent of Islam". Signs 11: 665–91 (686). Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
^ See for example Marco Schöller, Banu Qurayza, Encyclopedia of the Quran mentioning the differing accounts of the status of Rayhana
^ a b Barbara Freyer Stowasser, Wives of the Prophet, Encyclopedia of the Quran
^ Esposito (1998), p. 18
^ a b Bullough (1998), p. 119
^ a b Reeves (2003), p. 46
^ Watt, "Aisha", Encyclopedia of Islam Online
^ Amira Sonbol, Rise of Islam: 6th to 9th century, Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures
^ William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad in Medina, p.287
^ Esposito (1998), pp. 16–8.
^ F. E. Peters, Islam, a Guide for Jews and Christians, Princeton University Press, p.84
^ Tariq Ramadan (2007), p. 168-9
^ Asma Barlas, Believing Women in Islam, University of Texas Press, p.125
^ Nicholas Awde,Women in Islam: An Anthology from the Quran and Hadith,Routledge, p.10
^ Cambridge History of Islam (1970), p. 30.
^ a b c Lewis, Bernard. "Islamic Revolution", The New York Review of Books, January 21, 1998.
Watt (1974), p. 234
Robinson (2004) p. 21
Esposito (1998), p. 98
Ak̲h̲lāḳ, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
^ Islamic ethics, Encyclopedia of Ethics
^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 34
^ Esposito (1998), p. 30
^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 52
^ a b Denis Gril, Miracles, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
^ A.J. Wensinck, Muʿd̲j̲iza, Encyclopedia of Islam
^ Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Moon
^ a b Brown (1999), p. 65
^ Ernst (2004), p. 84
^ "Muhammad and Sufism" (HTML), Encyclopædia Britannica. "The Mi'raj, or Nocturnal Ascent, of the Prophet is the prototype of all spiritual wayfaring in Islam, and no group in Islamic society has been as conscientious as the Sufis in emulating the Prophet as the perfect saint and what later Sufis were to call the Perfect or Universal Man (al-insan al-kamil)."
^ Ilah is also translated as Deity, and means god in the sense of where there can be more than one, in plural, like the Roman gods, Allah, on the other hand, can be translated as 'The God', and can only mean God where there is one, alone
^ Friedmann, 'Finality of Prophethood'
^ G.G. Stroumsa, 'Seal of the prophets: The Nature of a Manichaen Metaphor', JSAI, 7 (1986), 61–74.
^ C.Colpe, 'Das Siegel der Propheten', Orientalia Suecana, 33–5 (1984–6), 71–83, revised version in C.Colpe, Das Siegel der Propheten, (Berlin, 1990), 227–43
^ Madelung (2004), p. 17
^ Ostling, Richard N, AP Religion Writer (2006-02-02). Islam Forbids Visual Depiction of Muhammad. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 2008-02-02.
^ Richard, Paul. "In Art Museums, Portraits Illuminate A Religious Taboo", The Washington Post, 2006-02-14, p. p. C01. Retrieved on 2008-01-02.
^ a b Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Encyclopedia Britannica, Muhammad, p.13
^ Ann Goldman, Richard Hain, Stephen Liben,Oxford Textbook of Palliative Care for Children, Oxford University Press, p.212
^ Esposito (1998), p. 14.
^ Watt (1974), p. 231.
^ Some other sources depicting Muhammad as an idol:
Cycle de Guillaume d'Orange
Willehalm of Wolfram von Eschenbach
History of Ulrich von dem Türlin
Rennewart of Ulrich von Türheim
Stricker's Karl der Große
Karlamagnus saga
Partonopier und Meliur of Konrad of Würzburg
^ Göran Larsson, Ibn Garcia's Shu'Ubiyya Letter: Ethnic and Theological Tensions in Medieval Al-Andalus, Brill Academic Publishers, p. 87
^ Reeves (2003), p. 3
^ a b Lewis (2002) p. 45.
^ Watt, Bell (1995) p. 18
^ Watt, Muhammad Prophet and Statesman, p. 17
^ Watt (1974) p. 231.
^ Watt, The Cambridge history of Islam, p. 37
^ Bernard W Lewis (1993), The Arabs in History, p. 45.
^ Watt, Muhammad the prophet and the statesman, p. 232
^ James A. Toronto (August 2000). A Latter-day Saint Perspective on Muhammad. Ensign. Retrieved on 2007-11-19.

Accad, Martin (2003). "The Gospels in the Muslim Discourse of the Ninth to the Fourteenth Centuries: An Exegetical Inventorial Table (Part I)". Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 14 (1).
Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th century Ottoman Art". In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 1–24. Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23–28, 1999.
Arafat, W. N. (1976). "Did Prophet Muhammad ordered 900 Jews killed?". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (JRAS): 100–107.
Bloom, Jonathan; Blair, Sheila (2002). Islam: A Thousand Years of Faith and Power. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09422-1.
Brown, Daniel (2003). A New Introduction to Islam. Blackwell Publishing Professional. ISBN 978-0631216049.
Brown, Daniel (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65394-0.
Bullough, Vern L; Brenda Shelton, Sarah Slavin (1998). The Subordinated Sex: A History of Attitudes Toward Women. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0820323695.
Cohen, Mark R. (1995). Under Crescent and Cross, Reissue edition, Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691010823.
Crow, Karim (2005). Facing One Qiblah: Legal and Doctrinal Aspects of Sunny and Shi'ah Muslims. Ibex Publishers. ISBN 9971-77-552-2.
Donner, Fred (1998). Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing. Darwin Press. ISBN 0-87850-127-4.
Endress, Gerhard (2003). Islam. New Age Books. ISBN 978-8178221564.
Ernst, Carl (2004). Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-5577-4.
Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511233-4.
Esposito, John (1999). The Islamic Threat: Myth Or Reality?. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513076-6.
Esposito, John (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0195125597.
Esposito, John (2002). What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515713-3.
Glubb, John Bagot (1970 (reprint 2002)). The Life and Times of Muhammad. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-8154-1176-6.
Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1995). The Life of Muhammad. Islamic Book Service. ISBN 1-57731-195-7.
Holt, P. M.; Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis (1977). The Cambridge History of Islam (Paperback). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521291354.
Hourani, Albert (2003). A History of the Arab Peoples, Revised edition, Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0674010178.
Ishaq, Ibn (2002). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0196360331.
Khan, Majid Ali (1998). Muhammad The Final Messenger. Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 110002 (India). ISBN 81-85738-25-4.
Lewis, Bernard (2002). The Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280310-7.
Lewis, Bernard (1992). Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An History Enquiry, Reprint edition, Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0195053265.
Lings, Martin (1987). Muhammad: His Life Based on Earliest Sources. Inner Traditions International, Limited .. ISBN 0-89281-170-6.
Madelung, William (2004). The Succession to Muhammad. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521561815.
Muir, William (1878). Life of Mahomet. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-7741-6.
Neusner, Jacob (2003). God's Rule: The Politics of World Religions. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-0878409105.
Ordoni, Abu Muhammad; Muhammad Kazim Qazwini (1992). Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. ISBN B000BWQ7N6.
Peters, Francis Edward (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11553-2.
Reeves, Minou (2003). Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0814775646.
Robinson, David (2004). Muslim Societies in African History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052153366X.
Schimmel, Annemarie (1992). Islam: An Introduction. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1327-6.
Schimmel, Annemarie (1995). Mystische Dimensionen des Islam. Insel, Frankfurt. ISBN 3458334157.
Stark, Rodney (2003). For the Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations, Science, Witch-Hunts, and the End of Slavery. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11436-6.
Tucker, Judith E.; Nashat, Guity (1999). Women in the Middle East and North Africa. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21264-2.
Warraq, Ibn (1995). Why I Am Not a Muslim. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0879759844.
Watt, W. Montgomery (1961). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4.
Watt, W. Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, New Edition, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4. .

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. (2005). Ed. William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian. Berkshire Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0974309101.
Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World. (2003). Ed. Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028656038.
Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd edition). (2005). Ed. Lindsay Jones. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028657332.
Encyclopedia of the Qur'an. (2005). Ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-9004123564.
Encyclopedia of World History. (1998). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198602235.
The New Encyclopedia Britannica (Rev Ed edition). (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica, Incorporated. ISBN 978-1593392369.

Further reading
Adil Salahi (2002). Muhammad: Man and Prophet. Islamic Foundation (UK). ISBN 186204290X.
Andrae, Tor (2000). Mohammed: The Man and His Faith. Dover. ISBN 0-486-41136-2.
Armstrong, Karen (1993). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 0-06-250886-5.
Berg, Herbert, ed. (2003). Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins. E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-12602-3.
Cook, Michael (1983). Muhammad. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-287605-8 (reissue 1996).
Dashti, Ali (1994). Twenty-Three Years: A Study of the Prophetic Career of Mohammad. Mazda. ISBN 1-56859-029-6.
Hamidullah, Muhammad (1998). The Life and Work of the Prophet of Islam. (s.n.)(Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute). ISBN 969-8413-00-6.
Motzki, Harald, ed. (2000). The Biography of Muhammad: The Issue of the Sources (Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts, Vol. 32). Brill. ISBN 90-04-11513-7.
Rodinson, Maxime (1961). Muhammad. New Publishers. ISBN 1-56584-752-0.
Rodinson, Maxime (2002). Muhammad: Prophet of Islam. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. ISBN 1-86064-827-4.
Rubin, Uri (1995). The Eye of the Beholder: The Life of Muhammad as Viewed by the Early Muslims (A Textual Analysis). Darwin Press. ISBN 0-87850-110-X.
Schimmel, Annemarie (1985). And Muhammad is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4128-5.
Stillman, Norman (1975). The Jews of Arab Lands: a History and Source Book. Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276-0198-0.
Warraq, Ibn (2000). The Quest for the Historical Muhammad. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-787-2.

External Links
Find more about Muhammad on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Source texts
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News stories
Learning resources
Non-sectarian biographies
Muhammad, article on Encyclopaedia Britannica Online
Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet — PBS Site
Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet — UPF (Producer's Site)
Encarta Encyclopedia
1911 Encyclopedia article on Mahomet
William Muir: The Life of Mahomet
The Hero as Prophet A passionate championship of Prophet Muhammad as a Hegelian agent of reform. by Carlyle, Thomas (1795–1881) On Heroes and the Heroic in History. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1966.
Muslim biographies
Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar)
PDF version of Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum
The Life of Muhammad by Muhammad Husayn Haykal
About the Prophet Muhammad (University of Southern California)
Banu Hashim
Cadet branch of the Banu Quraysh
Died: June 8 632

Saturday, February 16, 2008

Threat of jihadi terror to the survival of India -- N. Kataria


Paper Presented by Narain Kataria

President, Indian American Intellectuals Forum at the Symposium titled " Exposing The Threat of Islamic Terrorism" organized by America's Truth Forum at Dallas, Texas, February 1st and 2nd, 2008


I am very thankful to America's Truth Forum* for giving me an opportunity to share my views with so many experts on counter-terrorism and Islamic studies present here today.

At the outset, I would like to inform you that I am the survivor of the Partition of India which took place in 1947 in which more than 10 million Hindus were driven from Islamic Pakistan and hundreds of thousands of innocent Hindus and Sikhs were slaughtered by Muslims in connivance with newly formed Islamic government of Pakistan. That was the biggest displacement and forcible migration of Hindu people in the recorded History. The irony of the fate is that the world did not take serious note of this gruesome tragedy. The world woke up only after the incident of 9/11 while in the Indian sub-continent people have been the victims of many such tragedies (9/11s) in the last 1000 years.

I am one of the victims of the Islamic terrorism. I have seen with my own eyes my people being raped, looted, stabbed and killed by fanatic Muslims. I have seen the unprecedented religious cleansing of Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs by the so called followers of the Religion of Peace.

I have been watching the Islam in action for the last 60 years. I have read, seen and heard the stories of Bangladeshi Hindus who were forcibly driven from Bangladesh and compelled to take shelter in India. I have read the stories as to how 3 million people were murdered by Pakistani army in 1971 out of which 80% were Hindus.

A great scholar Mr. Arvind Ghosh, author of the book "Kafir and Quran" has talked about the Islamic atrocities on Hindus in the following poignant terms:

Brutalities committed on Hindus in Bangladesh in 1971 are without parallel in human history. In many cases a whole community was encircled. Mothers and daughters were raped on a mass scale, in presence of brothers or father. Breasts of elderly ladies were chopped off. Pregnant women were disemboweled, children's heads were smashed on the floor. Then followed the chopping off of genitals, gouging out of eyes. As a grand climax everybody was put in a house and the house was set on fire.

I have been watching the systematic religious cleansing of Hindus from Pakistan and Bangladesh. I also know as to how Hindu population in Islamic Pakistan has been reduced from 23% in 1947 to less than 1% and in Bangladesh from 35% to 8%.

Jihadists have murdered more than 10,000 Indian soldiers 30,000 civilians (mostly Hindus) in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. I have seen the ethnic cleansing and pitiable plight of 400,000 Hindus who were thrown out from their ancestral homes and hearths by Kashmiri Muslims in 1989 from Indian Kashmir. These Hindus from Kashmir are still languishing in camps in Jammu.

I remember it very well as to how in 1974, Turkey, the so called secular Islamic nation, militarily invaded Cyprus and forcibly created a Muslim state in Cyprus for Muslims.

The genocide of Armenian Christians between 1914-1923 which claimed more than 1.5 million lives is well known to all of us.

I have been watching how Muslims have transformed Lebanon from majority Christian State to majority Muslim State. Slowly and silently Christians are leaving Lebanon. I have been watching how Iran and Syria are supporting Hijbullah forces to obliterate Christianity from Lebanon.

Before the advent of Islam, Afghanistan was a Buddhists non-violent nation. Afghanistani people fought against Islam for 300 years. They were over-powered and converted to Islam. After converting to Islam, these non-violent Buddhists became Talibanis and violent murderers, and threat to the civilization. Finally, they destroyed the tallest Buddha statue in the world and drove out all the Hindus and Sikhs from Afghanistan.

I am also aware of the attacks on innocent people in Beslan in Russia, Bali in Indonesia, Madrid in Spain, London, Mumbai, India's Parliament complex in New Delhi, New York and other cities of the world. I also remember as to how on February 27, 2002, 57 innocent children and women were burnt alive by a Muslim mob of 2,000 people near Godhra (Gujarat, India).

I am a student of the History and know very well as to how a Sikh Guru Arjun Dev was made to sit on the hot plate. Hot sand was poured over his body till he died. I remember how another Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur was murdered by Muslims because he refused to convert to Islam. One Hindu leader Baba Mati Das was sawed alive by Muslims. I remember how Guru Govind Singh's two sons were buried alive in a ghastly manner. In all these cases, the killers were acting in accordance with Quranic injunctions on believers to kill the non-believers. In all these cases also the murderers were the followers of Islam, the so called religion of peace!

I have written so many articles on Islamic terrorism and attended many seminars on threat of Islamic Terrorism to world peace.

On the basis of my 60 years experience about Islamic Terrorism, I can confidently proclaim that American policy makers and Think Tanks are utterly confused and completely clueless about the nature of Islam. Some of the so called experts say that Political Islam is the greatest danger to the world peace. Others say that it is Radical Islam which is more dangerous. Still there is another school of thought which argues that Wahabi Islam/Salafi Islam, Deobandi Islam/Tabligi Islam is the sole cause of terrorism. All these definitions of Islam are prompted partly by partial understanding of the subject, partly because of the fear of violence, and partly by the desire to be politically correct.

Majority of the Muslims know it very well that there is only one Islam that is complete in all respects, infallible and needs no explanation or discussion. They gleefully enjoy the incomprehension of Infidel population and their baffled leaders who come up with meaningless and phony theories about Islam to satisfy their ego and maintain their leadership/scholars hip in the field.

What is Jihad?

In order to bluff and fool non-Muslims, smart and crafty Muslims present the concept of Jihad as a defensive struggle against unbelievers. But the close examination of the doctrine of Jihad will clearly demonstrate that Jihad is an Islamic tool to murder innocent people. Jihad is an extension of the Arab custom of Irazziat (raiding for booty) and Ghazwa (razzia) (banditry) which Prophet Mohammed skillfully incorporated in Islam as an obligatory religious duty on each and every Muslim. In order to achieve his aim of Arab dominance, he legitimized Jihad and gave it dignity. In addition to that he introduced a novel, highly attractive and alluring concept of sex after death in the course of Jihad which promised Jihadists abundance of sex provided they killed more and more unbelievers!

Mr. Bill Warner of Center for Studies of Political Islam, in an interview with Jamie Glazow of Front Page Magazines says that “in Bukhari 97% of the jihad references are about war and 3% are about the inner struggle. This makes it very clear that Jihad is nothing but war and terrorism. http://www.frontpag Articles/ ReadArticle. asp?ID=26769

According to Mr. Anwar Shaikh, a Muslim scholar from UK, Islam is not a faith but a political national movement launched by Prophet Mohammed to establish Arab cultural imperialism over the non-Arab people of the world. [This is Jehad by Anwar Shaikh]. Islamic groups use Jihad to achieve the political dominance of entire globe. Jihad is a doctrine of permanent warfare. It is to be continued in every country wherever Muslims live. It is incumbent on Jihadists to slaughter the unbelievers, kidnap and rape their women, enslave their children, all for the reason because they do not believe in Allah, Koran and Mohammed.

The concept of Dar-ul-Islam (Islamic nation) and Dar-ul-Harb (nation to be conquered) is another pernicious doctrine which impels and compels Muslims to keep fighting till the rule of Allah is established. Thus, Allah, the God of Arabs has divided the humanity in believers and non-believers. That is the reason Muslims are in perpetual warfare with local people in India, U.K., Chechnya, Lebanon, Thailand, Philippines and many other countries wherever they are in minorities.

Loot, Murder and Death Threats to Hindu Leaders

It is very common for Muslims to loot property of Hindus and issue death threats to Hindu leaders. Almost all the Hindu leaders are under threat of death by Jihadis. Recently Indian National Security Advisor, Mr. M.K. Narayanan suspected Pakistan's Inter Services Intelligence behind the recent failed attempt to kidnap Rahul Gandhi, son of Sonia Gandhi.

In December 2007, Chief Minister of an Indian state, Mr. Narendra Modi was threatened by Islamic groups that he would be killed.

In December 2007, 28 Indian journalists received threatening calls that they would be eliminated.

An e-mail threatening to blow up Indian airports has been received by Air India.

Last month Muslims created riots in Kolkata, Agra, Hyderabad, Allahabad, and looted Hindu property and burnt millions of dollar worth property.

Most recently, on New Year day this year, Islamic terrorists attacked CRP (Central Reserve Police) camp in Northern India killing 8 innocent persons.

Fear of Islamic Separatism

Muslim separatism was the main cause of the Partition of India. According to Pew Research Center 88% people in Germany, 72% in Russia, 68% in Spain, , 65% in Netherlands, 61% in U.K., 60% in Canada and 61% in India believe that Muslims want to maintain their separate identity in their countries, and therefore are a serious threat to the integrity of these countries http://pewglobal. org/reports/ display.php? ReportID= 248.

Concern About Islam

In another study Pew Center suggests that 48% people in India, 52% in Russia, 35% in Germany, 43% in Spain, 32% in France and 31% in U.S. are very worried about Islamic extremism and want an immediate action to take care of this before it is too late. http://pewglobal. org/reports/ display.php? PageID=809.

Islam, Most Violent Religion

In Germany 73%, in Poland 77%, in India 73%, in Russia 71%, in U.S. 67% and in Canada 61% people believe that Islam is the most violent religion. In fact it should not be considered as a religion, but a political and imperialistic ideology with the main aim of global dominate.
http://pewglobal. org/reports/ display.php? PageID=811

Demographic Terrorism

The greatest threat to India and to the World comes from the disproportionate and alarming growth of Muslim population.

According to Census Bureau of India, Muslim population in the Indian Subcontinent was zero percent in 1,000 A.D. It rose to 33% in 2005.

In India Muslim population in 1947, when India was divided in India and Pakistan, Muslim population was 8%. In 2001 it reached 14%. It is growing at the rate of 3.2%. It is projected to reach 55% in 2075. It means India, a nuclear power and very rich and powerful nation in 2075 will be made part of Arabic Imperialism. This is a very horrendous scenario.

In 1900 Muslim population in the world was 12%. If this population continue to grow with the current rate, in 2025 it will be 33% and in 2100 it will reach 37-40%. Many people are fearing that by the end of the century Europe will be renamed as Eurabia.

Confusion in Scholars about Islam

A true Muslim is commanded to follow Prophet Mohammed. As is well known, Prophet Mohammed had expelled all the Jews and non-believers from Arabia. In the same manner, Afghanistan and Pakistan drove out all the Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Prophet Mohammed killed each and every writer and poet who opposed him. In the same manner, Muslims are killing people like van Ghog and threatening writers like Sulman Rushdie, Tasleema Nasreen and Wafa Sultan.

There are thousands of articles in Quran and Hadith which incite Muslims to kill, murder, loot and enslave. It is enjoined upon Muslims to preach social segregation, hatred of non-Muslims and elimination of dissenters through dominance, death and conversion.

In order to substantiate my argument, I quote below some of the verses from Quran and Hadith:

O ye who believe! Murder those of the disbelievers . . . and let them find harshness in you. (Repentance 123)

O ye who believe! The non-Muslims are unclean. So let them not come near the inviolable Place of Worship. (Repentance: 28)

Humiliate the non-Muslims to such an extent that they surrender and pay tribute. (Repentance 29)

O believers, do not make friends with the Jews and Christians; . . . whoso of you makes them his friends is one of them. (The Table: 55)

Chapter LXXI of Shahi Muslim clearly states that since Islam is the religion for the entire humanity, it abrogates all other faiths. Hadith No. 285 asserts that any Jew or Christian who does not believe in Mohammed will become one of the denizens of Hell Fire.

Ayatollah Khomeini said: "Holy war (jihad) means the conquest of all non-Muslim territories.

There is irrefutable and voluminous material available to prove that Islam preaches hate, intolerance and violence.

So, What is the solution?

1. Purge the portions/verses of Koran, Hadith (tradition of Mohammed) and Sira (life of Mohammed) which incite Muslims to kill non-believers in the name of Allah. Who will do it: UNO

2. Understand the true psyche of Muslims and plan accordingly. In order to win the war on terror, it is absolutely essential that policy makers in USA, U.K., France, India and Israel should study seriously the Islamic psyche, and the factors that motivate them to murder innocent people in the name of Allah. Charles Martel, the great French Commander who defeated Muslim Commander Abdel Rahman in the Battle of Tours in 732 and saved entire Europe from being Islamized, had thorough knowledge not only of military science but also of Islamic psychology and he acted rightly to defeat Islam.

3. Contain Muslim Population: Find ways to bring down the growth rate of Muslim population by enforcing family planning and imposing restrictions on immigration.

In summary, let me emphasize that Islam is incompatible with the civilized societies. Its aim is to destroy civilizations and humiliate their citizens as mentioned above. It is strange that some leaders actuated by a desire to be politically correct, are misleading public and keeping them in dark.

Hence, it is the duty of all of us to educate the opinion makers, policy makers, politicians and finally the public. America's Truth Forum is exactly doing that. On behalf of Indian American Intellectuals Forum I heartily congratulate them for their sincere efforts and hard work and wish them success in their efforts.

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* Indian American Intellectuals Forum is a New York-based organization. Its aim is to create awareness about the menace of terrorism. Please also visit: Narainkataria@ blogspot. com or IntellectualsForum. blogspot. com


Demographic Terrorism

The alarming growth of Muslim population all over the world and in many countries in particular is the basis of the demographic terrorism. This is the worst kind of terrorism which has been growing slowly, silently and consistently. Please see the following figures: In Indian Subcontinent, in divided India, and finally in the entire world:

I. Indian Subcontinent

Year Hindus Muslims
1000 ~100% ~0%
1400 96 3.5
1700 89 10
1890 79 20
1945 73 25
2005 64 33

Note: 25% Muslim population played havoc with the national psyche and finally got 30% of the land in the form of Pakistan, and only 17% moved there, 8% stayed back behind! And now they want to seize the entire land and convert it into Dar-ul- Islam.

II. India
Hindus Muslims
1947 90% 8%
2001 83 14
Growth rate 2.2% 3.2%
Projection: 2055 55% 40%
Projection: 2075 40% 55%

Note: The higher rate of growth in Muslim community is due to many factors: only Hindus follow the family planning, huge infiltration of Muslims from Bangaldesh, high breeding rate of Muslim women etc. Please remember that what 25% of Muslim population did to the nation and to the Hindu community, if it grows again to that level or higher, that will be end of the Hindus in India as they have nowhere to go or will be allowed to remain as Hindus (please see what happened to Hindus in Pakistan and Bangladesh). If India ceases to be Hindu majority country inspired and governed by her ancient ethos, it will die its natural death.

This is not just problem of the Indian sub-continent, but it is a global problem and approaching to frightening proportions in many European countries where non-muslim population has negative growth rate while Muslims are growing at the alarming rate due to their relatively higher breeding and immigration. Please see below the latest figures of the Global Muslim population growth since 1900 and its projection in 2100:

III. Global Muslim Population
1900 12%
1992 18%
2003 20%
Projection: 2025 30%
Projection: 2100 37-40%

(Source: Spangler, The Decline of the West, cited by Samuel Huntington)

Looking at these figures, Nail Ferguson, a strategic analyst who teaches contemporary history at Harvard wrote in The Sunday Times, London, April 2004, in another 50 years time Europe is likely to become a Muslim-majority continent. Or Europe will become Eurabia in 2100. This is the worst kind of terrorism and has to be dealt with an iron hand.